Last edited 24 Aug 2022


Climate Change 2021, The Physical Science Basis, published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2021, defines adaptation in human systems as: ‘…the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects; human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.’

It defines adaptation options as: 'The array of strategies and measures that are available and appropriate for addressing adaptation. They include a wide range of actions that can be categorised as structural, institutional, ecological or behavioural.'

See also:

NB The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF), published by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government in 2021, defines climate change adaptation as: ‘Adjustments made to natural or human systems in response to the actual or anticipated impacts of climate change, to mitigate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.’

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